Life Cycle: Eriosoma lanigerum is an exotic species in the Middle East. In North America its primary host is the American elm tree (Ulmus. back to HYPP Zoology home page. Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann) Schizoneura lanigerum. Insecta, Homoptera, Pemphigidae. woolly apple aphid. Compiled by Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University. Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann) Homoptera: Eriosomatidae.
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Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 6531— Parasitization was higher on branches than on trunks in the orchard with regular pruning but without clover.
As the aphids feed they produce a honeydew which drips onto the fruit allowing the growth of lanogerum mould which has an impact on the saleability of the fruit. Download PDF of this page Print this page. Published online Oct Verticillium lecanii is the only fungal pathogen known to infect E.
For example, the captures on the trunk tapes, lanigeru, show the pattern of upward and downward crawler movement, occurred consistently from mid-April to November with a plateau around May—June, while the movement across the canopy was higher from May to August fig 1.
On the other hand, both chlorpyrifos and azinphos-methyl were found to be harmless to the immature stages of the parasitoid. The authors dicussed differences in resistance mechanisms of Er1, Er2, and Er3 in relation to the strategy of pyramiding these genes to give a durable resistance to woolly apple aphid.
Their antennae are about 0. Eriosoma lanigerum has been recorded on 9 species of the Malus genus. Fuji was significantly the most infested cultivar during the period of study and it ranked as a highly susceptible cultivar.
Category Number of aphids Mean 1 0—12 6 2 13—36 25 3 37— 73 4 — 5 — 6 — It is restricted to apple in some areas where it has been introduced, for example, parts of Australia Asante, Given that earwigs are considered the most important predator of WAA and we were unsure whether the tapes would trap them, their number was also assessed by means of shelters.
Five species of hymenopterous parasitoids and two species of Acarina ectoparasites were reported to attack Eriosoma lanigerum. Chromosome Information Service, No. European earwigs Forficula auricularia were found to reduce the survival of overwintering canopy colonies up to June, and this can allow their later control by the parasitoid Aphelinus mali from summer to fall.
Trials were performed in three apple orchards located in Catalonia NE Spain: Root damage is usually more severe than stem damage, is harder to detect and more difficult to control.
The situation was complicated by a fungus disease, perennial apple canker, caused by the fungal pathogen Nectria ditissimawhich caused serious injury to the trees. The Er1 and Er2 genes derived from “Northern Spy” and “Robusta 5” respectively, are the two major genes that breeders have used to date to improve the resistance of apple rootstocks to this pest.
The field biology of subterranean populations of the woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum Hausmann Hemiptera: A neem-based insecticide provided temporary suppression, as did several neonicotinyl insecticides. Spiders and velvet mites were ruled out as main variables of the PCA as they had a null contribution to the overall explained variance.
Population density of Aphelinus malia parasite of Eriosoma lanigerum in Iraq. They appear kanigerum black, especially on the head and thorax, although sometimes a dingy yellowish-brown, and lack the white waxy covering of other virginoparae.
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 65 3: In India, Gautam and Verma b observed apterous virginoparae undergoing four moults resulting in five instars. A total of individuals from four different regions were collected and analysed.
Alate sexuparae winged parents of sexula forms appeared from late July to early November; their offspring was also sexuparous. Damage The woolly apple aphid is an important economic pest of apple in North America, the Middle East, India, the Far East, South America, Australia and New Zealand, causing severe damage through direct feeding rather than virus transmission.
Milder winters have promoted overwintering survival on the aerial parts of the tree. The gene Er3, from Aotea an accession classified as Malus sieboldiiis a new major gene lanigrum woolly apple aphid resistance.
Compounds in aphid saliva that are toxic to trees are partly responsible for the severity of this damage. At low infestations, E. African Entomology 15— At each orchard, aphid colonies were collected and taken back to the laboratory to sample the emerging Aphelinus mali. The host plants include apple, pearPrunus sppcrab applePyracanthaCotoneasterelmhawthorn and mountain ash.
We fully acknowledge these authors as the source for the summarized taxonomic information we have presented.
For BB, data were obtained from the Castelldans station 8. Due to constantly changing labels, laws and regulations, the Extension Services can assume no liability for the suggested use of chemicals contained herein. A second approach to management, that of controlling the root colonies, was explored for the first time in this region.