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Process and Combustion Modifications.
The first review shall take place no later than one year after the date of entry into force of the present Protocol. Comparative estimates of fuel consumption are not included. Potrebno je osigurati kontrolu kvalitete mjerenja. The emission level in table 2 reflects emissions measured with standard test procedures.
Inspection should verify that emission controls are in their original working order. Unless otherwise indicated these techniques are considered to be well established on the basis of substantial operating experience, which in most cases has been gained over five years or more. At any time after five years from the date on which the present Protocol has come into force with respect to a Party, that Party may withdraw from it by giving written notification to the depositary.
A State or organization which accedes to the present Protocol after 31 December may implement articles 2 and 4 no later than 31 December In Austria and Switzerland strict NOx emission standards are already implemented. The baseline engine configuration is the turbocharged diesel engine. In matters within their competence, such regional economic integration organizations shall, on their own behalf, exercise the rights and fulfil the responsibilities which the present Protocol attributes to their member States.
These are combustion technologies with improved thermal efficiency and reduced NOx emissions. This should be taken into account when comparing data from different Parties. In addition, emissions can be reduced by integrated combustion control in the system. It cannot, however, be considered as an exhaustive statement of control options; its aim is to provide guidance to Parties in identifying best available technologies which are economically feasible as a basis for national emission standards and in the introduction of pollution control measures.
Flue gas treatment processes aim at removing already formed a NOx nd are also referred to as secondary measures. Recognizing that the expeditious consideration of procedures to create more favourable conditions for exchange of technology will contribute to orlucivanja effective reduction of emissions of nitrogen oxides in the region of the Commission.
Any Party may propose amendments to the present Protocol. Na procese bez izgaranja, npr.
In addition, some non-combustion processes may contribute considerably by th eemissions. Due to the classification as waste, a simple disposal is not possible, however recycling options exist. Pregledom treba potvrditi da su kontrole emisije u izvornim postavkama. Kao odgovor na regulatorne programe za daljnje smanjenje emisija NOx npr.
The collection of data for further use is a state-of-the-art technique. Napredni trostazni katalizator zatvorene petlje. It is based on information on options and techniques idlucivanja NOx emission reduction and odlucivanjx performance and costs contained in official documentation of the Executive Body and its subsidiary bodies; and in documentation of the ECE Inland Transport Committee and its subsidiary bodies; and on supplementary information provided by governmentally designated experts.
For the ECE region, combustion processes categories abcaccount for 85 per cent of NOx emissions from stationary sources.
Increasing the application of cracking technology in refineries, however, also brings about a reduction in the nitrogen content of the end-product. Table 1 also summarizes the costs of applying the NOx abatement technologies. This trend may drv the potential to improve baseline fuel consumption performance.
Tehnologije za kontrolu emisija iz osobnih automobila i lakih komercijalnih vozila na benzinsko i dizelsko gorivo. This can be done through inspection and maintenance programmes, ensuring conformity of production, full useful-life durability, warranty of emission-control components, and recall of defective vehicles.
There should not be any devices to reduce the efficiency or switch off the emission control systems during any operating conditions except conditions which are indispensable for trouble-free running e. However, further environmental impacts have to be considered. An alternative approach also used is to set a target for the reduction of total NOx emissions from a group of existing sources and to allow the Parties to choose where to take action to reach this target bubble concept.
Amendments under paragraphs 3 and 4 above shall, as soon as possible after their adoption, be communicated by the Executive Secretary to all Parties. The installed capacity is presently about 1, MWel 5 plants.
Obrada i odlaganje otpada. However, the reduction potential indicated in table 2 is considered representative of reductions achievable in use. Sporazumjele su se kako slijedi: The Executive Body shall discuss the proposed amendments at its next annual meeting provided that these proposals have been circulated by the Executive Secretary to the Parties at least ninety days in advance. Petrol-and diesel-fuelled passenger cars and lightcommercial vehicles.
To ensure that the owner has no production-related problems, manufacturers should provide warranties for emission-control components. Until other data become available this annex concentrates on road vehicles only. Commercial, institutional and residental combustion plants.
The following side-effects will not prevent the implementation of any technology or method, but should be considered when several NOx abatement options are possible.
It shall form an integral part of the Protocol. Under such programmes, manufacturers are responsible for recalling vehicles that fail to meet the required standards.
Razina emisije u tablici 2. In a few cases, however, the NOx emissions from HDV traffic will exceed the decreasing emissions from passenger cars.
They will also be beneficial for other harmful effects of traffic expansion such as noise, congestion, etc. The most efficient currently available technology for NOx reduction is option E. The inspection and maintenance programme odlucivanaj an important secondary function.